Instructions: Answer all questions in a short paragraph or two.

  1. What is Pericles’ main argument in the funeral oration? Why is Athens respected?
  2. What were the Athenian and Melian positions in the Melian Dialogue as presented by Thucydides?
  3. Why, according to Aristotle, do individuals seek to form a polis? Why does the idea of a confederation of polis seem problematic for Aristotle and the Greeks, more generally?
  4. What is the difference for Augustine between the City of God and the Temporal City?
  5. What is Vitoria’s argument for when violence is permissible by the Spanish in the new world?
  6. What, according to Machiavelli, were virtú and fortuna? What is their relationship?
  7. What is Machiavelli’s understanding of political morality?