Consider the ways in which being labeled as a criminal has economic, social and psychological consequences. How is the labeling as criminal related to issues of race and discrimination? Think about our discussion of names earlier in the semester. What makes labels deeply sociological?

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1.   Rios, Victor. 2011. “Dreams Deferred: The Patterns of Punishment in Oakland.” Pp. 3-23 in Punished: The Lives of Black and Latino Boys. NYU Press.

2.   Gonzales, Roberto. 2011. “Learning to be Illegal: Undocumented Youth and Shifting Legal Contexts in the Transition to Adulthood.” American Sociological Review 76(4).